Essay on Dna Profiling - 1212 Words - StudyMode

The BRCA1 C complex is characterized by the interaction of the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer with the protein CtBP interaction partner (CtIP, also known as RBBP8). The other interaction partners in this complex are the members of the MRN complex: MRE11 (meiotic recombination 11 homolog A), RAD50 (radiation sensitive 50), and Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1, also known as NBN). A role of the C complex in G2/M checkpoint control was proposed first (), but recently other functions of the C complex have been elucidated. It is proposed to be involved in the initial step of HR, namely end resection to form 3′ single-strand overhangs, and in the elimination of covalently bound DNA modifications from DSBs (; ). However, it is also possible that BRCA1 is not involved in 5′ end resection and that this action depends only on CtIP and MRN. The formation of 3′ overhangs in humans still needs further investigation to determine which proteins are definitely involved. The MRN complex is highly conserved in , as well (; ; ). There is also a homolog of HsCtIP present, which is called AtCOM1 (; ). The presence of these factors strongly suggest that a BRCA1 C-like complex might be present in and may exhibit similar functions, such as participation in 5′ end resection. HsCtIP and HsBRCA1 were also shown to have a role in repairing DNA damage that is caused by topoisomerase inhibitors (), but it remains to be determined whether the complete C complex is involved in this reaction and whether the plant homologs are involved in repairing the same kinds of damage.

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Genetic testing results are integrated with information collected by multidisciplinary teams composed of medical examiners, forensic pathologists, anthropologists, forensic dentists, fingerprint specialists, radiologists and experts in search and recovery of physical evidence. Large scale tissue sampling and long-term DNApreservation under desiccation conditions with potential applications in mass fatalities has been recently described [2-4]. In this paper, we present an overview of current research in Forensic Science. Section II states the problem statement.

DNA Profiling Techniques in Forensic Science Essay

DNA fingerprinting is done to:

Even a "wear&tear" theory like DNA damage is subject to a programmed aging interpretation. In general, DNA repair tends to lag behind DNA damage to a greater extent in short-lived species, and the amount of lag can constitute the degree of "programmed aging". A study which correlated maximum lifespanin a variety of mammalian species found a six-fold difference in the nuclear DNA-repair activity of mice and men. A graph of DNA-repair activity standardized on the rat ("rat-relative repair", where rat DNA-repair activity equals 1.0), showed a direct correlation between rat-relative DNA repair and maximum lifespan for the species [MECHANISMS OF AGING AND DEVELOPMENT; Cortopassi, GA; 91:211-218 (1996)].

Dna profiling research papers

Theimpending usage of a national DNA database poses many possible risks ofpolitical and commercial abuse of such information, along with the danger thisinformation falling into the hands of unfriendly parties, are unpredictable. Such unpredictability, certainly, is a violation of people's rights toprivacy. For instance, if a private institution, such as a bank, an employer,or an insurance company, receives access to this information, it couldinfluence decisions on loans, hiring practices, insurance rates, etc. Society,then, is faced with a conflict between an individual's right to privacy inone's genetic composition and the employer's or insurance company's interest inknowing about a person's health problems. This conflict will constitute theremainder of this paper.

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Figure 5. The three BRCA1 complexes in humans. The three human complexes in which the BRCA1–BARD1 heterodimer was found are called the A, B, and C complexes. The A complex is involved in DNA repair via homologous recombination. The heterodimer is needed to load RAD51 on single-stranded DNA, where it then catalyzes the strand invasion. The B complex has a role in the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, and the C complex is involved in the G2/M checkpoint and 5′ end resection, which is the initial step after a DNA double strand break. See the text for details. (Proteins with a known homolog in are colored, and the names are written in bold; ABRA1, Abraxas1; BARD1, BRCA1 associated RING domain protein 1; BRCA1, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1; BRCA2, breast cancer susceptibility gene 2; BRCC36, BRCA1/BRCA2 containing complex subunit 36; BRCC45, BRCA1/BRCA2 containing complex subunit 45; CtIP, CtBP interaction partner; FANCJ, Fanconi anemia complementation group J; MLH1, mutL Homolog 1; MRE11, meiotic recombination 11 homolog A; MSH6, mutS Homolog 6; NBA1, new component of the BRCA1 A complex; NBS1, Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1; PALB2, partner and localizer of BRCA2; RAD50, radiation sensitive 50; RAD51, radiation sensitive 51; TopBP1, topoisomerase 2 binding protein 1)