In the late 1930s, Italy enacted manufacturing cartels, tariff barriers, currency restrictions and massive regulation of the economy to attempt to balance payments. However, Italy's policy of autarky failed to achieve effective economic autonomy. Nazi Germany similarly pursued an economic agenda with the aims of autarky and rearmament and imposed policies, including forcing the German steel industry to use lower-quality German iron ore rather than superior-quality imported iron. In Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, both pursued territorial expansionist and interventionist foreign policy agendas from the 1930s through the 1940s culminating in . Mussolini called for irredentist Italian claims to be reclaimed, establishing Italian domination of the and securing Italian access to the and the creation of Italian ("vital space") in the Mediterranean and regions. Hitler called for irredentist German claims to be reclaimed along with the creation of German ("living space") in Eastern Europe, including territories held by the , that would be colonized by Germans.
The closest one could come to putting a date on the beginning of Fascism in Italy would be to magically zip back in time to March 23, 1919, where in a Milan's Piazza San Sepolcro, the founding fathers of Fascism. As their ideas evolved, they began to be more vocal. In 1921 they developed a plan for action for the nation of Italy. That plan evolved as time progressed, but it was still complete enough to actually win the hearts and minds of the people. "While failing to outline a coherent program, fascism evolved into a new political and economic system that combined corporatism, totalitarianism, nationalism, and anti-Communism in a state designed to bind all classes together under a capitalist system....one in which the state seized control of the organization of vital industries. Under the banners of nationalism and state power, Fascism seemed to synthesize the glorious Roman past with……
Fascism in Italy and Germany - Essay by Jodee2014
Many similarities exist between German fascism, or Nazism, and Italian fascism. For example, both fascist movements were brought into power after facing very similar problems. One of the major problems that both countries encountered was a post-war economy teeming with instability. Germany's fragile economy was undermined by widespread unemployment, hyperinflation, and burdensome reparation payments, while Italy's economy was just as delicate. In addition, the Great Depression brought both countries even further into economic collapse. Another problem that brought about fascism in the two countries was post-war peace settlements, especially the Versailles Treaty. While the Germans were exasperated by the exorbitant reparation payments forced upon them by the Allies, the Italians felt betrayed by the peace settlements for denying them the territory and status they deserved. Another problem that the two countries faced was their dissatisfaction with their existing governments. Many Germans were disgruntled with the Weimar Republic for signing the humiliating Treat of Versailles, while many Italians were apprehensive of the chaos within their parliamentary regime.