(2010-11-10) - ISBN-13: 978-613-3-51489-8

Wie der Wolf im Schafspelz tritt sie auf. Harmlos erscheinend und zugleich sehr gefährlich. Die Ideologie des Gender Mainstreaming. Unter der Flagge vermeintlicher Geschlechtergerechtigkeit will sie jede auf Vater, Mutter und Kindern aufgebaute Gesellschaft zerstören. Wo die Ursachen dafür liegen und wie diese von langer Hand geplante Massenindoktrinierung durch Politik, Wirtschaft, Bildung und Kirche gefördert wird, belegt der Theologe Eberhard Kleina in seinem spannenden Aufsatz. Jede Familie sollte sich dringend mit diesem Thema tiefgründig auseinandersetzen.

 Soprano, Frank Loesser, Marc Blitzstein, The Threepenny Opera, Kurt Weill

With limited imagination for a global polis at hand, Wendt argues that a world state is inevitable (). However, the world state is not introduced as a persuasive final cause in a contested argumentation but rather as a result of efficient causes at work. The liberal legacy of an end of history á la Fukuyama is integrated with no further reflection. Thus, one can argue that the Wendtian world state has the Leviathan as its root metaphor. Again, a mortal god is erected by necessity more powerful, more stable, than ever a state was before. It is a Super God. This has major consequences. The project of a global polis as the Leviathan is a red flag for all versions of pluralism. If we have only this blueprint, it will face a powerful opposition. Indeed, the whole conceptualisation of a global liberal wave that faces resistance from local identities becomes extremely problematic if the Leviathan is in the offing. Of course, the emergence of Wendt’s world state is, at the moment, not conceivable. It takes heroic assumptions and a good deal of speculation to understand it as inevitable. Nevertheless, the Leviathan concept is already at work in global governance when we speak of failed states and their impact on the security of the world polity as such. The failed state concept has already faced some critique (; ). States fail because their agency is measured with reference to the godlike Leviathan and its omnipotence. The Leviathan has to secure order inside its territory. Stability is the first concern for all states in the Hobbesian vision of the Leviathan. Only if the state is stable, it is understood to deliver other functions of agency. The stable small Leviathan of the nation-state is a precondition for the world-state Leviathan. The global Leviathan is composed of many little Leviathans securing their stable rule over their territory and thereby securing the order of the world state. In turn, the global Leviathan can intervene if a small Leviathan fails to provide order by itself in its provincial territory.


Robert Browning as a Forerunner of the Aestheticist Mode of Writing

(2011-07-15) - ISBN-13: 978-613-5-76596-0

In the essay Spaemann also argues that scientism is not only the source of spiteful misconceptions about ourselves but also the source of grave objectification. Spaemann says that technological intervention in human reproduction, for example test tube babies, works “to eliminate the idea of dignity per se” (60).


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Considering these aspects, we can discern a semantic field of pilgrims, pilgrimages and pilgrim communities applicable to world politics: embarking on a pilgrimage to a shrine is an action connected with the expectation that something or someone will change. Usually, the pilgrims expect a change they wished for, but they are also open to new solutions as they expose themselves to a new experience of the divine that might demand or give a transformation of the pilgrim’s self. Following Turner and others, anthropological research on pilgrimage speaks of the experiences of transcending limits, which form new communities. The concept of pilgrimage stresses the point that a changing actorness of the actor can nevertheless keep the integrity of the actor secured while strengthening agency and communally orientation. To gain agency, it is not necessary to be accomplished once and for all, like a caterpillar's cocoon before it turns into a butterfly. Pilgrims often embark on their journeys and they can understand their whole life as a pilgrimage that gradually transforms into a more communal way of life. These aspects of the concept of pilgrimage can also illuminate the praxis of politics. They can enrich the findings of constructivism with its emphasis on identity change in our age of transformation.

Klett-Cotta :: Nach uns die Kernschmelze - Robert Spaemann (Hrsg.

Applying the pilgrim metaphor to the state in world politics is thus not an idealistic approach but rather takes power politics seriously. However, the transformative aspect always enables a critical dimension asking for a change for the better, which is measured with a more inclusive communal identity while preserving the actorness and the agency of the actors involved.